Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation
azadi ka amrit mahotsav

Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Annual Report 2022-2023 Released

Increasing Trend in Labour Force Participation Rate and Worker Population Ratio

Constant Decrease in Unemployment Rate

Posted On: 09 OCT 2023 9:29PM by PIB Delhi

Considering the importance of availability of labour force data at more frequent time intervals, National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) launched Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) in April 2017.

The objective of PLFS is primarily twofold:

 

  1. to estimate the key employment and unemployment indicators (viz. Worker Population Ratio, Labour Force Participation Rate, Unemployment Rate) in the short time interval of three months for the urban areas only in the ‘Current Weekly Status’ (CWS).
  2. to estimate employment and unemployment indicators in both ‘Usual Status’ (ps+ss) and CWS in both rural and urban areas annually.

Five Annual Reports covering both rural and urban areas giving estimates of all important parameters of employment and unemployment in both usual status (ps+ss) and current weekly status (CWS) have been released. These five Annual Reports are brought out on the basis of data collected in PLFS during July 2017- June 2018, July 2018-June 2019, July 2019-June 2020, July 2020 - June 2021 and July 2021-June 2022.

Now the sixth Annual Report is being brought out by NSSO on the basis of Periodic Labour Force Survey conducted during July 2022-June 2023.

 

PLFS fieldwork during July 2022 – June 2023

The field work for collection of information in respect of the samples, allotted for the period July 2022 – June 2023, was completed timely for the first visit as well as revisit samples, except for 51 first visit and 68 revisit FSUs for the State of Manipur, allotted in the last quarter i.e., April-June 2023, which were treated as casualties, due to disturbed field situation and unavailability of internet services.

Canvassing of revisit schedules is undertaken mostly in telephonic mode since June 2020 when field work was resumed after the suspension due to Covid-19 pandemic.

Sample Design of PLFS

  1. A rotational panel sampling design has been used in urban areas. In this rotational panel scheme, each, selected household in urban areas is visited four times, in the beginning with ‘First Visit Schedule’ and thrice periodically later with a ‘Revisit Schedule’. In urban area, samples for a panel within each stratum were drawn in the form of two independent sub-samples. The scheme of rotation ensures that 75% of the first-stage sampling units (FSUs) are matched between two consecutive visits. There was no revisit in the rural samples. For rural areas, samples for a stratum/sub-stratum were drawn randomly in the form of two independent sub-samples. For rural areas, in each quarter of the survey period, 25% FSUs of annual allocation were covered.

Sampling method

  1. Sample Size for First Visit during July 2022- June 2023 in rural and urban areas for the Annual Report: Out of the total number of 12,800 FSUs (7,024 villages and 5,776 UFS blocks) allotted for the survey at the all-India level during July 2022 - June 2023, a total of 12,714 FSUs (6,982 villages and 5,732 urban blocks) were surveyed for canvassing the PLFS schedule (Schedule 10.4). The number of households surveyed was 1,01,655 (55,844 in rural areas and 45,811 in urban areas) and number of persons surveyed was 4,19,512 (2,43,971 in rural areas and 1,75,541 in urban areas). Among the persons surveyed, total number of persons of age 15 years and above was 3,20,260 (1,81,049 in rural areas and 1,39,211 in urban areas).
  2. Conceptual Framework of Key Employment and Unemployment Indicators: The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) gives estimates of Key employment and unemployment Indicators like, the Labour Force Participation Rates (LFPR), Worker Population Ratio (WPR), Unemployment Rate (UR), etc. These indicators, and the ‘Usual Status’ and ‘Current Weekly Status’ are defined as follows:
  3. Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): LFPR is defined as the percentage of persons in labour force (i.e. working or seeking or available for work)in the population.

 

  1. Worker Population Ratio (WPR): WPR is defined as the percentage of employed persons in the population.
  2. Unemployment Rate (UR): UR is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed among the persons in the labour force.
  3. Activity Status- Usual Status: The activity status of a person is determined on the basis of the activities pursued by the person during the specified reference period. When the activity status is determined on the basis of the reference period of last 365 days preceding the date of survey, it is known as the usual activity status of the person.
  4. Activity Status- Current Weekly Status (CWS): The activity status determined on the basis of a reference period of last 7 days preceding the date of survey is known as the current weekly status (CWS) of the person.

 

The Annual Report on PLFS 2022-23 is available at the website of the Ministry(https://mospi.gov.in). The key results are given in the statements annexed.

Key Findings of PLFS, Annual Report 2022- 2023

  1. Estimates of key labour market indicators in usual status (ps+ss)
  2. Increasing Trend in Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) for persons of age 15 years and above

In rural areas, LFPR increased from 50.7% in 2017-18 to 60.8% in 2022-23 while for urban areas it increased from 47.6% to 50.4%. LFPR for male in India increased from 75.8% in 2017-18 to 78.5% in 2022-23 and corresponding increase in LFPR for female was from 23.3% to 37.0%.

 

Table 1: Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) in usual status (ps+ss) for persons of age 15 years and above

all-India

Survey period

Rural

Urban

Rural+Urban

male

female

person

male

female

person

male

female

person

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

2022-23

80.2

41.5

60.8

74.5

25.4

50.4

78.5

37.0

57.9

2021-22

78.2

36.6

57.5

74.7

23.8

49.7

77.2

32.8

55.2

2020-21

78.1

36.5

57.4

74.6

23.2

49.1

77.0

32.5

54.9

2019-20

77.9

33.0

55.5

74.6

23.3

49.3

76.8

30.0

53.5

2018-19

76.4

26.4

51.5

73.7

20.4

47.5

75.5

24.5

50.2

2017-18

76.4

24.6

50.7

74.5

20.4

47.6

75.8

23.3

49.8

Note: (ps+ss)  determined considering both principal activity status and subsidiary economic activity status

 

2022-23 refers to the period July 2022 – June 2023 and likewise for 2021-22, 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

 

  1. Increasing Trend in Worker Population Ratio (WPR) for persons of age 15 years and above

 

In rural areas, WPR increased from 48.1% in 2017-18 to 59.4% in 2022-23 while for urban areas it increased from 43.9% to 47.7%. WPR for male in India increased from 71.2% in 2017-18 to 76.0% in 2022-23 and corresponding increase in WPR for female was from 22.0% to 35.9%.

 

Table 2: Worker Population Ratio (WPR) in usual status (ps+ss) for persons of age 15 years and above

all-India

Indicator

Rural

Urban

Rural+Urban

male

female

person

male

female

person

male

female

person

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

2022-23

78.0

40.7

59.4

71.0

23.5

47.7

76.0

35.9

56.0

2021-22

75.3

35.8

55.6

70.4

21.9

46.6

73.8

31.7

52.9

2020-21

75.1

35.8

55.5

70.0

21.2

45.8

73.5

31.4

52.6

2019-20

74.4

32.2

53.3

69.9

21.3

45.8

73.0

28.7

50.9

2018-19

72.2

25.5

48.9

68.6

18.4

43.9

71.0

23.3

47.3

2017-18

72.0

23.7

48.1

69.3

18.2

43.9

71.2

22.0

46.8

Note: (ps+ss) determined considering both principal activity status and subsidiary economic activity status

 

    1. 2022-23 refers to the period July 2022 – June 2023 and likewise for 2021-22, 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

 

  1. Decreasing Trend in Unemployment Rate (UR) for persons of age 15 years and above

 

In rural areas, UR decreased from 5.3% in 2017-18 to 2.4% in 2022-23 while for urban areas it decreased from 7.7% to 5.4%. UR for male in India decreased from 6.1% in 2017-18 to 3.3% in 2022-23 and corresponding decrease in UR for female was from 5.6% to 2.9%.

 

 

Table 3: Unemployment Rate (UR) in usual status (ps+ss) for persons of age 15 years and above

all-India

Indicator

Rural

Urban

Rural+Urban

male

female

person

male

female

person

male

female

person

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

2022-23

2.7

1.8

2.4

4.7

7.5

5.4

3.3

2.9

3.2

2021-22

3.8

2.1

3.2

5.8

7.9

6.3

4.4

3.3

4.1

2020-21

3.8

2.1

3.3

6.1

8.6

6.7

4.5

3.5

4.2

2019-20

4.5

2.6

3.9

6.4

8.9

6.9

5.0

4.2

4.8

2018-19

5.5

3.5

5.0

7.0

9.8

7.6

6.0

5.1

5.8

2017-18

5.7

3.8

5.3

6.9

10.8

7.7

6.1

5.6

6.0

Note: (ps+ss)  determined considering both principal activity status and subsidiary economic activity status

 

2022-23 refers to the period July 2022 – June 2023 and likewise for 2021-22, 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

 

Principal activity status (ps) - The activity status on which a person spent relatively long time (major time criterion) during 365 days preceding the date of survey, was considered the usual principal activity status of the person.

 

Subsidiary economic activity status (ss)- The activity status in which a person in addition to his/her usual principal status, performs some economic activity for 30 days or more for the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey, was considered the subsidiary economic activity status of the person.

 

  1. Estimates of key labour market indicators in Current Weekly Status (CWS)

 

  1. Increasing Trend in Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) for persons of age 15 years and above

 

In rural areas, LFPR increased from 48.9% in 2017-18 to 56.7% in 2022-23 while for urban areas it increased from 47.1% to 49.4%. LFPR for male in India increased from 75.1% in 2017-18 to 77.4% in 2022-23 and corresponding increase in LFPR for female was from 21.1% to 31.6%.

 

Table 4: Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) in current weekly status (CWS) for persons of age 15 years and above

all-India

Survey period

Rural

Urban

Rural+Urban

male

female

person

male

female

person

male

female

person

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

2022-23

78.8

34.6

56.7

73.9

24.0

49.4

77.4

31.6

54.6

2021-22

76.7

29.2

53.0

74.2

22.1

48.6

75.9

27.2

51.7

2020-21

76.7

30.0

53.4

73.8

21.7

48.0

75.8

27.5

51.8

2019-20

76.7

28.3

52.5

73.8

22.1

48.2

75.8

26.3

51.2

2018-19

75.5

22.5

49.1

73.7

19.7

47.1

74.9

21.6

48.5

2017-18

75.6

21.7

48.9

74.1

19.6

47.1

75.1

21.1

48.4

Note: CWS: activity status determined on the basis of a reference period of last 7 days preceding the date of survey

 

2022-23 refers to the period July 2022 – June 2023 and likewise for 2021-22, 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

 

  1. Increasing Trend in Worker Population Ratio (WPR) for persons of age 15 years and above

 

In rural areas, WPR increased from 44.8% in 2017-18 to 54.2% in 2022-23 while for urban areas it increased from 42.6% to 46.0%. WPR for male in India increased from 68.6% in 2017-18 to 73.5% in 2022-23 and corresponding increase in WPR for female was from 19.2% to 30.0%.

 

Table 5: Worker Population Ratio (WPR) in current weekly status (CWS) for persons of age 15 years and above

all-India

Indicator

Rural

Urban

Rural+Urban

male

female

person

male

female

person

male

female

person

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

2022-23

75.2

33.2

54.2

69.3

21.8

46.0

73.5

30.0

51.8

2021-22

71.7

27.9

49.9

68.4

19.9

44.6

70.7

25.6

48.3

2020-21

71.2

28.6

50.0

66.8

19.0

43.1

69.9

25.7

47.9

2019-20

70.1

26.7

48.4

66.0

19.4

43.0

68.8

24.4

46.7

2018-19

69.0

20.9

45.0

67.2

17.4

42.7

68.4

19.8

44.3

2017-18

69.1

20.1

44.8

67.7

17.1

42.6

68.6

19.2

44.1

Note: CWS: activity status determined on the basis of a reference period of last 7 days preceding the date of survey

 

    1. 2022-23 refers to the period July 2022 – June 2023 and likewise for 2021-22, 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

 

  1. Decreasing Trend in Unemployment Rate (UR) for persons of age 15 years and above

 

In rural areas, UR decreased from 8.4% in 2017-18 to 4.4% in 2022-23 while for urban areas it decreased 9.5% to 7.0%. UR for male in India decreased from 8.7% in 2017-18 to 5.1% in 2022-23 and corresponding decrease in UR for female was from 9.0% to 5.1%.

 

 

Table 6: Unemployment Rate (UR) in current weekly status (CWS) for persons of age 15 years and above

all-India

Indicator

Rural

Urban

Rural+Urban

male

female

person

male

female

person

male

female

person

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

2022-23

4.6

4.0

4.4

6.3

9.1

7.0

5.1

5.1

5.1

2021-22

6.5

4.5

6.0

7.8

9.9

8.3

6.9

5.8

6.6

2020-21

7.1

4.8

6.5

9.4

12.2

10.1

7.8

6.6

7.5

2019-20

8.7

5.5

7.8

10.5

12.4

11.0

9.3

7.3

8.8

2018-19

8.6

7.3

8.3

8.8

12.1

9.5

8.7

8.7

8.7

2017-18

8.7

7.5

8.4

8.7

12.7

9.5

8.7

9.0

8.7

Note: CWS: activity status determined on the basis of a reference period of last 7 days preceding the date of survey

 

2022-23 refers to the period July 2022 – June 2023 and likewise for 2021-22, 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

 

Note: Detailed Results are available at the website of theMinistry (www.mospi.gov.in.)

 

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