Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare
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Statement by ICAR-CCARI on Soil and Nutrient loss in major crops of Goa

ICAR-CCARI, Goa has developed technologies for soil and water conservation measures in important crops of Goa, to reduce the soil and nutrient loss

Posted On: 22 MAR 2023 5:30PM by PIB Mumbai

Goa, 22 March 2023

 

Indian Council of Agricultural Research - Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Goa issued a statement today regarding media reports based on  Information given by Narendra Singh Tomar, Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare in response to  an unstarred question by Luizinho Faleiro, Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha on Soil Health management studies in Goa.

The state of Goa is characterised by its unique undulated topography where the slope of the land varies from 0-280% with an average slope of 14.41%. The state also receives excessive rainfall of more than 3000 mm/year. Soil erosion losses in Goa vary from moderate (< 15 t/ha/year) to extremely severe (> 80 t/ha/year) classes while the national average soil loss in India is 15.59 t/ha/year. The permissible soil loss limit for India is 11.2 t/ha/year. The cultivation of crops like cashew, mango and coconut helps to reduce erosion losses compared to fallow or barren lands.

Based on more than 15 year studies conducted at ICAR-CCARI, Goa, soil erosion losses in cashew, mango and coconut cropping systems were estimated to be 24, 12.6 and 10.5 t/hectare/year, respectively without any conservation practices i.e. control. The soil erosion losses in these cropping systems are less or close to the national average soil loss.

To further reduce the soil and nutrient loss ICAR-CCARI, Goa has developed technologies for soil and water conservation measures in important crops of Goa like cashew, mango and coconut based on the long-term studies conducted. Studies on cashew were conducted on 19% slope during 2001-2013.

In cashew, the soil and water conservation measure standardised (continuous contour trenching + vegetative barrier of vetiver grass) reduced the runoff by 44.5%, soil loss by 47% (reduced from 24 to 12.3 t/ha/year) and NPK loss by 60.2% (reduced from 89.7 to 35.7 kg/ha/year) with increased soil organic carbon stock by 140%. Litterfall in cashew which starts during November-December covers the soil surface and acts as a physical barrier to runoff and reduces soil erosion losses. Further, the leaf litter helps to develop a conducive environment for micro-flora and -fauna such as earthworms. Improved organic matter and microbial activities lead to an increased infiltration rate. This will result in improved soil moisture conservation and groundwater recharge. Studies on mango were conducted on 19% slope during 2002-2019. In mango, a soil and water conservation measure of continuous contour trenching + vegetative barrier of vetiver grass (CCT+VB) reduced soil loss by 83% (reduced from 12.6 to 2.15 t/ha) and runoff by 53% than control (reduced from 42.1 to 22.3%). This recommended measure on an average reduced NPK loss by 88.6% over control. Studies on coconut were conducted on 14% slope  during 2008-2019. In coconut, circular trenching reduced soil loss and runoff by 76 and 34%, respectively which has reduced the NPK loss by 78.2% over control. The cultivation of crops like cashew, mango and coconut reduces soil erosion however adoption of soil and water technologies developed by ICAR-CCARI further help to reduce soil erosion loss and improve soil health.

Soil and nutrient loss in major crops of Goa

Crop

Duration of study

Slope (%)

Soil loss (t/ha/year)

Estimated soil loss without crop*

Without any conservation measures i.e. Control

With ICAR-CCARI recommended technology/ conservation measures

% reduction in soil loss

Cashew

2001-2013

19

39.89

24.0

12.3

47

Mango

2002-2019

19

28.66

12.6

2.15

83

Coconut

2008-2019

14

12.90

10.5

2.18

76

*According to Goa Bhoomi GeoPortal, ICAR-NBSS&LUP, Nagpur

 

Crop

Duration of study

Slope (%)

NPK loss (kg/ha/year)

Without any conservation measures i.e. Control

With ICAR-CCARI recommended technology/conservation measures

% reduction in NPK loss

Cashew

2001-2013

19

89.7

35.7

60.2

Mango

2002-2019

19

123.8

14.5

88.6

Coconut

2008-2019

14

92.3

19.8

78.2

Dr. Gopal Ramdas Mahajan (Phone number : 9595167318), Senior Scientist at ICAR-CCARI may be contacted for any query regarding the above statemen.

 

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PIB Panaji | S.Thakur/D.Rane

 

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