Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation
azadi ka amrit mahotsav

Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) – Annual Report [July, 2020 – June, 2021]

Posted On: 14 JUN 2022 4:51PM by PIB Delhi

A.         Introduction

Considering the importance of availability of labour force data at more frequent time intervals, National Statistical Office (NSO) launched Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) in April 2017.

The objective of PLFS is primarily twofold:

  • to estimate the key employment and unemployment indicators (viz. Worker Population Ratio, Labour Force Participation Rate, Unemployment Rate) in the short time interval of three months for the urban areas only in the ‘Current Weekly Status’ (CWS).
  • to estimate employment and unemployment indicators in both ‘Usual Status’ (ps+ss) and CWS in both rural and urban areas annually.

Three Annual Reports covering both rural and urban areas giving estimates of all important parameters of employment and unemployment in both usual status (ps+ss) and current weekly status (CWS) have been released. These three Annual Reports are brought out on the basis of data collected in PLFS during July 2017- June 2018, July 2018-June 2019 and July 2019-June 2020.

Now the fourth Annual Report is being brought out by NSO on the basis of Periodic Labour Force Survey conducted during July 2020-June 2021.

B.         PLFS fieldwork during COVID-19 pandemic

The fieldwork of PLFS was suspended first time from 18.03.2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic, and was resumed in June 2020 with the pending samples for this period. This, therefore, had a spill-over effect in completion of field work allotted for the survey period July 2020 to June 2021. Subsequently, there was another spill-over effect due to the 2nd wave of COVID-19 when the field work of PLFS was again suspended in April 2021 in most parts of the country. The field work was gradually resumed in the first week of June 2021 with COVID-19 related restrictions. First visit samples were canvassed physically with retrospective referencing in case of delayed samples. Field work for collection of information in respect of the selected samples of the survey period July 2020-June 2021, was completed by 30.09.2021.

C.         Sample Design of PLFS

 

  1. A rotational panel sampling design has been used in urban areas. In this rotational panel scheme, each, selected household in urban areas is visited four times, in the beginning with ‘First Visit Schedule’ and thrice periodically later with a ‘Revisit Schedule’. In urban area, samples for a panel within each stratum were drawn in the form of two independent sub-samples. The scheme of rotation ensures that 75% of the first-stage sampling units (FSUs)[1] are matched between two consecutive visits. There was no revisit in the rural samples. For rural areas, samples for a stratum/sub-stratum were drawn randomly in the form of two independent sub-samples. For rural areas, in each quarter of the survey period, 25% FSUs of annual allocation were covered.

D.         Sampling method

  1. Sample Size for First Visit during July 2020- June 2021 in rural and urban areas for the Annual Report:Out of the total number of 12,800 FSUs (7,024 villages and 5,776 UFS blocks) allotted for the survey at the all-India level during July 2020- June 2021, a total of 12,562 FSUs (6,930 villages and 5,632 urban blocks) were surveyed for canvassing the PLFS schedule (Schedule 10.4). The number of households surveyed was 1,00,344 (55,389 in rural areas and 44,955 in urban areas) and number of persons surveyed was 4,10,818 (2,36,279 in rural areas and 1,74,539 in urban areas).

 

  1. Conceptual Framework of Key Employment and Unemployment Indicators: The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) gives estimates of Key employment and unemployment Indicators like, the Labour Force Participation Rates (LFPR), Worker Population Ratio (WPR), Unemployment Rate (UR), etc. These indicators, and the ‘Usual Status’ and ‘Current Weekly Status’ are defined as follows:

 

  1. Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): LFPR is defined as the percentage of persons in labour force (i.e. working or seeking or available for work)in the population.

 

  1. Worker Population Ratio (WPR): WPR is defined as the percentage of employed persons in the population.

 

  1. Unemployment Rate (UR): UR is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed among the persons in the labour force.

 

  1. Activity Status- Usual Status: The activity status of a person is determined on the basis of the activities pursued by the person during the specified reference period. When the activity status is determined on the basis of the reference period of last 365 days preceding the date of survey, it is known as the usual activity status of the person.

 

  1. Activity Status- Current Weekly Status (CWS): The activity status determined on the basis of a reference period of last 7 days preceding the date of survey is known as the current weekly status (CWS) of the person.

 

The Annual Report on PLFS 2020-21 is available at the website of the Ministry(https://mospi.gov.in). The key results are given in the statements annexed.

Key Findings of PLFS, Annual Report 2020- 2021

 

Statement 1:   LFPR, WPR and UR (in per cent) in usual status (ps+ss)* during PLFS, 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18for persons of all ages

 

all-India

Rates

Rural

Urban

Rural+Urban

male

female

person

male

female

person

male

female

person

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

PLFS 2020-21

LFPR

57.1

27.7

42.7

58.4

18.6

38.9

57.5

25.1

41.6

WPR

54.9

27.1

41.3

54.9

17.0

36.3

54.9

24.2

39.8

UR

3.9

2.1

3.3

6.1

8.6

6.7

4.5

3.5

4.2

PLFS 2019-20

LFPR

56.3

24.7

40.8

57.8

18.5

38.6

56.8

22.8

40.1

WPR

53.8

24.0

39.2

54.1

16.8

35.9

53.9

21.8

38.2

UR

4.5

2.6

4.0

6.4

8.9

7.0

5.1

4.2

4.8

PLFS 2018-19

LFPR

55.1

19.7

37.7

56.7

16.1

36.9

55.6

18.6

37.5

WPR

52.1

19.0

35.8

52.7

14.5

34.1

52.3

17.6

35.3

UR

5.6

3.5

5.0

7.1

9.9

7.7

6.0

5.2

5.8

PLFS 2017-18

LFPR

54.9

18.2

37.0

57.0

15.9

36.8

55.5

17.5

36.9

WPR

51.7

17.5

35.0

53.0

14.2

33.9

52.1

16.5

34.7

UR

5.8

3.8

5.3

7.1

10.8

7.8

6.2

5.7

6.1

Note: *(ps+ss) = (principal activity status + subsidiary economic activity status)

 

2020-21 refers to the period July 2020 – June 2021 and likewise for 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

 

 

Principal activity status- The activity status on which a person spent relatively long time (major time criterion) during 365 days preceding the date of survey, was considered the usual principal activity status of the person.

 

Subsidiary economic activity status- The activity status in which a person in addition to his/her usual principal status, performs some economic activity for 30 days or more for the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey, was considered the subsidiary economic status of the person.

 

Statement2:     WPRs (in per cent) in usual status (ps+ss) by different levels of education among persons of age 15 years and above during PLFS 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

all‑India

 

category of persons

highest level of education successfully completed

 

not literate

literate &upto primary

middle

secondary

higher secondary

diploma/ certificate course

graduate

post graduate & above

secondary & above

all

 

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

 

 

PLFS 2020-21

 

 

Rural

 

male

80.3

87.2

77.9

64.6

58.6

74.9

72.5

79.3

65.0

75.1

 

female

43.5

42.6

31.7

23.8

19.3

40.0

23.5

38.1

23.1

35.8

 

person

56.1

65.1

58.1

47.5

42.4

64.9

53.5

62.6

48.0

55.5

 

 

Urban

 

male

75.3

81.5

74.8

62.5

53.8

73.1

71.7

78.2

65.1

70.0

 

female

25.5

24.7

18.3

13.1

13.1

38.2

23.6

36.9

19.6

21.2

 

person

41.3

51.5

48.7

39.9

35.0

63.4

50.3

57.8

44.6

45.8

 

 

Rural+Urban

male

79.5

85.9

77.1

63.9

57.0

74.0

72.1

78.6

65.1

73.5

 

female

40.3

37.9

27.8

20.0

16.9

39.1

23.5

37.3

21.5

31.4

 

person

53.6

61.7

55.5

44.9

39.7

64.2

51.8

59.4

46.5

52.6

 

 

PLFS 2019-20

 

 

Rural

 

male

79.6

86.5

76.6

64.4

57.6

73.4

69.0

78.3

63.9

74.4

 

female

39.4

36.3

27.4

21.6

18.1

38.6

21.1

38.3

21.3

32.2

 

person

53.3

62.3

55.3

46.8

41.2

63.9

50.9

61.8

46.8

53.3

 

 

Urban

 

male

75.8

81.9

74.3

62.7

54.5

72.9

70.1

78.4

65.0

69.9

 

female

25.2

23.6

17.8

12.0

12.7

37.8

26.0

38.1

20.2

21.3

 

person

41.7

51.2

47.6

40.3

35.3

63.7

50.4

58.5

45.0

45.8

 

 

Rural+Urban

male

78.9

85.4

76.0

63.8

56.5

73.1

69.6

78.4

64.4

73.0

 

female

36.8

32.8

24.4

18.0

15.8

38.2

24.1

38.1

20.8

28.7

 

person

51.3

59.5

53.0

44.5

38.8

63.8

50.6

59.5

46.0

50.9

 

 

PLFS 2018-19

 

 

Rural

 

male

76.5

85.6

74.7

60.5

55.8

66.4

69.1

75.4

61.3

72.2

 

female

30.7

29.8

21.0

17.2

13.8

34.3

18.4

31.5

17.1

25.5

 

person

46.7

58.4

51.7

42.9

38.6

57.4

50.2

59.0

43.7

48.9

 

 

Urban

 

male

72.6

80.2

73.1

60.6

52.3

73.7

69.5

79.9

63.8

68.6

 

female

21.9

20.6

15.9

9.9

9.5

34.0

23.1

36.8

17.3

18.4

 

person

38.0

49.6

46.2

37.8

32.5

63.3

49.1

59.5

43.1

43.9

 

 

Rural+Urban

male

75.9

84.2

74.2

60.5

54.5

70.4

69.3

78.4

62.3

71.0

 

female

29.1

27.3

19.3

14.5

12.0

34.1

21.3

35.5

17.2

23.3

 

person

45.2

56.1

50.1

41.1

36.2

60.6

49.6

59.3

43.4

47.3

 

 

PLFS 2017-18

 

 

Rural

 

male

78.7

85.1

73.3

61.0

54.4

59.7

66.2

75.9

60.3

72.0

 

female

29.1

26.0

18.3

15.6

12.5

34.9

18.6

31.1

16.0

23.7

 

person

46.7

56.0

50.0

43.1

38.0

52.6

48.9

59.8

43.3

48.1

 

 

Urban

 

male

76.2

80.2

73.8

62.1

51.5

69.8

71.1

77.6

63.9

69.3

 

female

21.6

21.7

13.8

10.6

9.9

32.8

22.8

35.7

17.3

18.2

 

person

38.7

50.7

45.3

38.8

32.3

59.6

50.2

57.1

43.1

43.9

 

 

Rural+Urban

male

78.3

83.8

73.4

61.4

53.3

65.1

68.8

76.9

61.8

71.2

 

female

27.7

24.9

16.9

13.7

11.4

33.8

21.2

34.5

16.6

22.0

 

Person

45.3

54.6

48.7

41.6

35.8

56.4

49.7

57.9

43.2

46.8

 

2020-21 refers to the period July 2020 – June 2021 and likewise for 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

 

 

Statement3:     Percentage distribution of workers in usual status (ps+ss) by status in employment during PLFS 2020-21, 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

all‑India

 

Survey period

male

female

self-

employed

regular wage/ salaried employees

casual

labour

self-

employed

regular wage/ salaried employees

casual

labour

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

PLFS 2020-21

Rural

59.7

13.6

26.8

64.8

9.1

26.2

Urban

39.9

45.3

14.9

38.4

50.1

11.5

PLFS 2019-20

Rural

58.4

13.8

27.8

63.0

9.5

27.5

Urban

38.7

47.2

14.1

34.6

54.2

11.1

PLFS 2018-19

Rural

57.4

14.2

28.3

59.6

11.0

29.3

Urban

38.7

47.2

14.2

34.5

54.7

10.7

PLFS 2017-18

Rural

57.8

14.0

28.2

57.7

10.5

31.8

Urban

39.2

45.7

15.1

34.7

52.1

13.1

2020-21 refers to the period July 2020 – June 2021 and likewise for 2019-20, 2018-19 and 2017-18

               

 

Note: Detailed Results are available at the website of the Ministry (www.mospi.gov.in.)

*****

DS/VJ

[1]Villages and urban blocks are the smallest area units taken as first-stage sampling units (FSU) in rural and urban areas respectively.



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