Ministry of Labour & Employment
azadi ka amrit mahotsav g20-india-2023

Female Labour Force Participation

Posted On: 28 MAR 2022 4:48PM by PIB Delhi

As per the results of Annual Employment–Unemployment Surveys conducted by Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour and Employment during 2011-12 to 2016-17 and Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) conducted by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation since 2017-18, the estimated annual female Labour Force Participation rate (LFPR), for age 15 years and above on usual status to the extent available is given below:


Female Labour Force Participation Rate (in %)

Survey Period


Labour Bureau Survey















Results from both surveys viz PLFS and Labour Bureau are not comparable due to different sampling methodology and coverage. PLFS covers seasonality of labour force as it is conducted during the period July to June (i.e. full year) whereas field work in Labour Bureau survey varied from 7 to 9 months and therefore, complete seasonality was not covered.

The Government has notified four Labour Codes namely, the Code on Wages, 2019, the Industrial Relations Code, 2020, the Code on Social Security, 2020 and the Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020 by simplifying, amalgamating and rationalizing the relevant provisions of 29 Central Labour Laws. Codification of the Labour Laws provides a policy framework for harmonizing the needs of job seekers, workers and employers. The Labour Codes will, inter-alia, reduce multiplicity of definitions & authorities, facilitate implementation & use of technology in enforcement of labour laws and bring transparency & accountability in enforcement, promote setting up of more enterprises, catalyzing the creation of employment opportunities in the country. It would promote setting up of industries by reducing rigidity of labour market and facilitate hassle free compliance, paving the way for realizing the goal of Atmanirbhar Bharat.

The Government has taken various steps to improve women’s participation in the labour force and quality of their employment. A number of protective provisions have been incorporated in the labour laws for equal opportunity and congenial work environment for women workers. These includes enhancement in paid maternity leave from 12 weeks to 26 weeks, provision for mandatory crèche facility in the establishments having 50 or more employees, permitting women workers in the night shifts with adequate safety measures, etc.

Employment of women in the aboveground mines including opencast workings has been allowed between 7 pm and 6 am, and in below ground working between 6 am and 7 pm in technical, supervisory and managerial work where continuous presence may not be required.

The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 now subsumed in the Code on Wages, 2019 provides that there shall be no discrimination in an establishment or any unit thereof among employees on the ground of gender in matters relating to wages by the same employer, in respect of the same work or work of similar nature done by any employee. Further, no employer shall make any discrimination on the ground of sex while recruiting any employee for the same work or work of similar nature in the conditions of employment, except where the employment of women in such work is prohibited or restricted by or under any law for the time being in force.

 To enhance the employability of female workers, the Government is providing training to them through a network of Women Industrial Training institutes, National Vocational Training Institutes and Regional Vocational Training Institutes.                                                         


This information was given by Shri Rameswar Teli, Minister of State, Ministry of Labour & Employment in Lok Sabha today.





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