Ministry of Jal Shakti
azadi ka amrit mahotsav

UNDERGROUND WATER RECOVERY

Posted On: 24 JUL 2023 6:15PM by PIB Delhi

The Dynamic Ground Water Resources of the country are being periodically assessed jointly by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and State Governments. In order to understand the current state of underground water resources, a comparison has been made between latest assessment (2022) with the assessment carried out in 2017.

The average ‘Stage of Ground Water Extraction (i.e. gross groundwater extraction for all uses on an average to available groundwater resource)’ for the country as a whole works out to 60.08% in 2022 assessment as compared with 2017 assessment (63.33%), indicating overall improvement (groundwater recovery) in the ground water regime. Further, the ‘Stage of Groundwater Extraction’ in the States of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan is more than 100 %. The State-wise details in this regard are given at Annexure I.

Further, the comparison reveals that the over-exploited (‘stage of groundwater extraction’ is more than 100 %) assessment units (blocks/mandals/firkas /district/valley etc) in 2017 were 1186 (17.23%) out of 6881 assessment units whereas in 2022, there were 1006 (14.19%) over exploited units out of 7089 assessment units indicating an improved trend (groundwater recovery) in groundwater scenario. Further, the percentage of Over-exploited assessment units (in terms of total assessment units) have increased in the States of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan in the 2022 assessment when compared with 2017 assessment. The State-wise details are given at Annexure II.

 

The water level data collected by CGWB during November 2022 has been compared with the mean of groundwater level data of November (2012-2021). Analysis of water level data indicates that about 61.1% of the wells monitored have registered rise in ground water levels. The State-wise details are given in Annexure III.

 

Ground water levels in certain parts of the country are declining because of continuous withdrawal necessitated by increased demand for fresh water for various uses, vagaries of rainfall, increased population, industrialization & urbanization including increasing concretisation (in urban areas) etc. Further, Agriculture sector being one of the most important contributors to the Indian economy and food sufficiency is a major groundwater extractor in most parts of the country due to various reasons.

 

Water being State subject identification of groundwater challenges and its sustainable management falls under States’ mandate, however, Central Government has taken a number of important measures in this regard in the country including in States with groundwater stress, which can be seen at web-link https://cdnbbsr.s3waas.gov.in/s3a70dc40477bc2adceef4d2c90f47eb82/uploads/2023/02/2023021742.pdf

Government of India is implementing Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) in the country in which special emphasis is being given for rainwater harvesting/groundwater recharge. First JSA was launched in 2019 in water stressed blocks of 256 districts which continued during the years 2021,2022 also (across entire country both rural and urban areas) with the primary aim to effectively harvest the monsoon rainfall through creation of artificial recharge structures, watershed management, recharge and reuse structures, intensive afforestation and awareness generation etc. JSA for the year 2023 has been launched by Hon'ble President of India on 4th March 2023 with the theme “Source Sustainability for Drinking Water”.

Hon’ble Prime Minister has launched Amrit Sarovar Mission on 24th April 2022. The Mission is aimed at developing and rejuvenating 75 water bodies in each district of the country as a part of celebration of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav for rainwater harvesting/recharge.

Central Government is promoting participatory groundwater management in the country with community participation at village level for conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater based on scientific means. Further, crop diversification, crop rotation, use of micro irrigation techniques like drip/sprinkler irrigation systems, increasing water use efficiency by use of improved techniques, availability of surface water through canal-based system, energy efficient electric tariff policy etc are being vigorously promoted in agriculture sector.

Central Government is implementing Atal Bhujal Yojana involving the local communities at village levels with an outlay of Rs. 6,000 crore, in collaboration with States, in certain water stressed areas of Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Under Atal Bhujal Yojana, the focus is on demand side management of the ground water and accordingly water saving interventions such as use of micro irrigation (drip/sprinkler system), shifting of cropping patter from high water intensive crops to low water intensive crops, use of pipe in irrigation to reduce losses, mulching etc. are being encouraged and incentivised.

 

Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare is implementing Per Drop More Crop (PDMC) Scheme which is operational from 2015-16 in the Country. PDMC focuses on water use efficiency at farm level through Micro Irrigation mainly (Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation System).

Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Groundwater- 2020 has been prepared by the CGWB in collaboration with States/UTs providing a broad outline of the project and expected investments. The Master Plan envisages construction of about 1.42 crore Rain water harvesting and artificial recharge structures in the Country to harness 185 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) of water. The Master plan has been shared with States/UTs for suitable interventions.

Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has formulated Model Building Bye Laws (MBBL), 2016 for the States/UTs. As per MBBL, all buildings having a plot size of 100 Sq.m. or, more shall mandatorily include the complete proposal of rainwater harvesting. 35 States/ UTs have adopted the features of the Bye Laws.

In addition, Several States have done notable work in the field of water conservation/rainwater harvesting such as ‘Mukhyamantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan’ in Rajasthan, ‘JalyuktShibar’ in Maharashtra, ‘SujalamSufalam Abhiyan’ in Gujarat, ‘Mission Kakatiya’ in Telangana, 'Neeru Chettu’ in Andhra Pradesh, 'Jal Jeevan Hariyali' in Bihar, ‘Jal Hi Jeevan’ in Haryana, 'PaniBachao Paise Kamao' scheme in Punjab and 'Kudimaramath' scheme in Tamil Nadu etc.

This information was given by the Minister of State for Jal Shakti, Shri  Bishweswar Tudu in a written reply in Rajya Sabha today.

 

ANNEXURE I

Comparison of the Stage of Ground Water Extraction between the Assessment year 2017 and 2022

S. No.

States / Union Territories

Stage of Ground Water Extraction (%)

Assessment year 2017

Stage of Ground Water Extraction (%)

Assessment year 2022

1

Andhra Pradesh

44.15

28.81

2

Arunachal Pradesh

0.28

0.79

3

Assam

11.25

12.38

4

Bihar

45.76

44.94

5

Chhattisgarh

44.43

49.58

6

Delhi

119.61

98.16

7

Goa

33.50

23.63

8

Gujarat

63.89

53.23

9

Haryana

136.91

134.14

10

Himachal Pradesh

86.37

37.56

11

Jharkhand

27.73

31.35

12

Karnataka

69.87

69.93

13

Kerala

51.27

52.56

14

Madhya Pradesh

54.76

59.1

15

Maharashtra

54.62

54.68

16

Manipur

1.44

7.95

17

Meghalaya

2.28

3.55

18

Mizoram

3.82

3.96

19

Nagaland

0.99

2.89

20

Odisha

42.18

44.25

21

Punjab

165.77

165.99

22

Rajasthan

139.88

151.07

23

Sikkim

0.06

6.04

24

Tamil Nadu

80.89

75.59

25

Telangana

65.45

41.6

26

Tripura

7.88

9.70

27

Uttar Pradesh

70.18

70.66

28

Uttarakhand

56.83

48.04

29

West Bengal

44.60

47.01

30

Andaman and Nicobar

2.74

1.35

31

Chandigarh

89.00

80.99

32

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

31.34

133.2

 

Daman & Diu

61.40

157.927

33

Jammu and Kashmir

29.47

24.18

34

Ladakh

Included in J&K

41.36

35

Lakshadweep

65.99

61.6

36

Puducherry

74.33

69.17

 

Grand Total

63.33

60.08

 

ANNEXURE II

Comparison of Over-exploited Assessment Units of 2017 with 2022

S.No.

State/Union Territories

2017

2022

Total
 No. of Assessed Units

Over-Exploited

Total

 No. of Assessed Units

Over-Exploited

   

 

Nos.

%

 

Nos.

%

1

Andhra Pradesh

670

45

7

667

6

0.9

2

Arunachal Pradesh

11

0

0

11

0

0

3

Assam

28

0

0

28

0

0

4

Bihar

534

12

2

535

8

1.50

5

Chhattisgarh

146

0

0

146

0

0

6

Delhi

34

22

65

34

15

44.12

7

Goa

12

0

0

12

0

0

8

Gujarat

248

25

10

252

23

9.13

9

Haryana

128

78

61

143

88

61.54

10

Himachal Pradesh

8

4

50

10

0

0

11

Jharkhand

260

3

1

263

5

1.90

12

Karnataka

176

45

26

234

49

20.94

13

Kerala

152

1

1

152

0

0

14

Madhya Pradesh

313

22

7

317

26

8.20

15

Maharashtra

353

11

3

353

11

3.12

16

Manipur

9

0

0

9

0

0

17

Meghalaya

11

0

0

12

0

0

18

Mizoram

26

0

0

26

0

0

19

Nagaland

11

0

0

11

0

0

20

Odisha

314

0

0

314

0

0

21

Punjab

138

109

79

153

117

76.47

22

Rajasthan

295

185

63

302

219

72.52

23

Sikkim

4

0

0

6

0

0

24

Tamil Nadu

1166

462

40

1166

360

30.87

25

Telangana

584

70

12

594

13

2.20

26

Tripura

59

0

0

59

0

0

27

Uttar Pradesh

830

91

11

836

63

7.54

28

Uttarakhand

18

0

0

18

0

0

29

West Bengal*

268

0

0

345

0

0

30

Andaman and Nicobar

36

0

0

36

0

0

31

Chandigarh

1

0

0

1

0

0

32

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

1

0

0

1

1

100.00

 

Daman & Diu

2

0

0

2

2

100.00

33

Jammu and Kashmir

22

0

0

20

0

0

34

Ladakh**

0

0

0

8

0

0

35

Lakshadweep

9

0

0

9

0

0

36

Puducherry

4

1

25

4

0

0

 

Grand Total

6881

1186

17.23

7089

1006

14.19

 

* The Ground Water resources assessment as on 2013 has been considered for the state of West Bengal for 2017 assessment also.

** In 2017 assessment, Ladakh is included in Jammu and Kashmir

 

ANNEXURE III

State-wise Decadal Water Level Fluctuation with Mean [November (2012 to 2021] and November 2022

S. No.

Name of State

No. of wells Analysed

Rise

Fall

Rise

Fall

Wells showing no change

0-2 m

2-4 m

>4 m

0-2 m

2-4 m

>4 m

No

%

No

%

No

%

No

%

No

%

No

%

No

%

No

%

No

%

1

Andaman and Nicobar

99

70

70.7

2

2.0

0

0.0

26

26.3

0

0.0

0

0.0

72

72.7

26

26.3

1

1.0

2

Andhra Pradesh

662

335

50.6

91

13.7

65

9.8

157

23.7

11

1.7

3

0.5

491

74.2

171

25.8

0

0.0

3

Arunachal Pradesh

9

1

11.1

0

0.0

0

0.0

7

77.8

1

11.1

0

0.0

1

11.1

8

88.9

0

0.0

4

Assam

163

84

51.5

2

1.2

1

0.6

72

44.2

2

1.2

2

1.2

87

53.4

76

46.6

0

0.0

5

Bihar

638

291

45.6

19

3.0

4

0.6

279

43.7

36

5.6

9

1.4

314

49.2

324

50.8

0

0.0

6

Chandigarh

14

4

28.6

1

7.1

0

0.0

5

35.7

2

14.3

2

14.3

5

35.7

9

64.3

0

0.0

7

Chhattisgarh

757

386

51.0

86

11.4

20

2.6

214

28.3

36

4.8

14

1.8

492

65.0

264

34.9

1

0.1

8

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

15

9

60.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

5

33.3

1

6.7

0

0.0

9

60.0

6

40.0

0

0.0

9

Daman & Diu

7

4

57.1

0

0.0

0

0.0

3

42.9

0

0.0

0

0.0

4

57.1

3

42.9

0

0.0

10

Delhi

84

31

36.9

11

13.1

18

21.4

12

14.3

6

7.1

6

7.1

60

71.4

24

28.6

0

0.0

11

Goa

63

10

15.9

0

0.0

0

0.0

47

74.6

5

7.9

1

1.6

10

15.9

53

84.1

0

0.0

12

Gujarat

709

287

40.5

113

15.9

76

10.7

169

23.8

35

4.9

29

4.1

476

67.1

233

32.9

0

0.0

13

Haryana

258

102

39.5

24

9.3

18

7.0

65

25.2

22

8.5

27

10.5

144

55.8

114

44.2

0

0.0

14

Himachal Pradesh

84

23

27.4

4

4.8

0

0.0

52

61.9

3

3.6

2

2.4

27

32.1

57

67.9

0

0.0

15

Jammu & Kashmir

271

102

37.6

6

2.2

3

1.1

150

55.4

10

3.7

0

0.0

111

41.0

160

59.0

0

0.0

16

Jharkhand

173

73

42.2

8

4.6

5

2.9

70

40.5

15

8.7

1

0.6

86

49.7

86

49.7

1

0.6

17

Karnataka

1328

545

41.0

188

14.2

157

11.8

395

29.7

27

2.0

15

1.1

890

67.0

437

32.9

1

0.1

18

Kerala

1410

602

42.7

35

2.5

7

0.5

718

50.9

35

2.5

12

0.9

644

45.7

765

54.3

1

0.1

19

Madhya Pradesh

1259

650

51.6

262

20.8

92

7.3

199

15.8

40

3.2

16

1.3

1004

79.7

255

20.3

0

0.0

20

Maharashtra

1474

661

44.8

231

15.7

105

7.1

394

26.7

62

4.2

19

1.3

997

67.6

475

32.2

2

0.1

21

Meghalaya

24

12

50.0

1

4.2

0

0.0

11

45.8

0

0.0

0

0.0

13

54.2

11

45.8

0

0.0

22

Nagaland

4

0

0.0

2

50.0

0

0.0

1

25.0

1

25.0

0

0.0

2

50.0

2

50.0

0

0.0

23

Odisha

1211

686

56.6

29

2.4

3

0.2

465

38.4

26

2.1

2

0.2

718

59.3

493

40.7

0

0.0

24

Pondicherry

4

3

75.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

1

25.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

3

75.0

1

25.0

0

0.0

25

Punjab

230

54

23.5

2

0.9

2

0.9

89

38.7

47

20.4

36

15.7

58

25.2

172

74.8

0

0.0

26

Rajasthan

889

270

30.4

114

12.8

88

9.9

249

28.0

82

9.2

86

9.7

472

53.1

417

46.9

0

0.0

27

Tamil Nadu

620

220

35.5

160

25.8

136

21.9

86

13.9

11

1.8

7

1.1

516

83.2

104

16.8

0

0.0

28

Telangana

512

217

42.4

106

20.7

135

26.4

44

8.6

4

0.8

6

1.2

458

89.5

54

10.5

0

0.0

29

Tripura

20

7

35.0

1

5.0

0

0.0

10

50.0

2

10.0

0

0.0

8

40.0

12

60.0

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